Chemistry (the etymology of the word has been much disputed) is the science of matter and the changes it undergoes. The science of matter is also addressed by physics, but while physics takes a more general and fundamental approach, chemistry is more specialized, being concerned with the composition, behavior, structure, and properties of matter, as well as the changes it undergoes during chemical reactions
Chemistry is the scientific study of interaction of chemical substances that are constituted of atoms or the subatomic particles: protons, electrons and neutrons. Atoms combine to produce molecules or crystals
Biochemistry is the study of chemical processes in living organisms. It deals with the structures and functions of cellular components such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids and other biomolecules. Over the last 40 years biochemistry has become so successful at explaining living processes that now almost all areas of the life sciences from botany to medicine are engaged in biochemical research. Today the main focus of pure biochemistry is in understanding how biological molecules give rise to the processes that occur within living cells which in turn relates greatly to the study and understanding of whole organisms.
Originally, it was generally believed that life was not subject to the laws of science the way non-life was. It was thought that only living beings could produce the molecules of life (from other, previously existing biomolecules). Then, in 1828, Friedrich Wöhler published a paper on the synthesis of urea, proving that organic compounds can be created artificially.
The dawn of biochemistry may have been the discovery of the first enzyme, diastase (today called amylase), in 1833 by Anselme Payen. Eduard Buchner contributed the first demonstration of a complex biochemical process outside of a cell in 1896: alcoholic fermentation in cell extracts of yeast. Although the term “biochemistry” seems to have been first used in 1882, it is generally accepted that the formal coinage of biochemistry occurred in 1903 by Carl Neuberg, a German chemist. Previously, this area would have been referred to as physiological chemistry. Since then, biochemistry has advanced, especially since the mid-20th century, with the development of new techniques such as chromatography, X-ray diffraction, dual polarisation interferometry, NMR spectroscopy, radioisotopic labeling, electron microscopy and molecular dynamics simulations. These techniques allowed for the discovery and detailed analysis of many molecules and metabolic pathways of the cell, such as glycolysis and the Krebs cycle (citric acid cycle).
Another significant historic event in biochemistry is the discovery of the gene and its role in the transfer of information in the cell. This part of biochemistry is often called molecular biology. In the 1950s, James D. Watson, Francis Crick, Rosalind Franklin, and Maurice Wilkins were instrumental in solving DNA structure and suggesting its relationship with genetic transfer of information. In 1958, George Beadle and Edward Tatum received the Nobel Prize for work in fungi showing that one gene produces one enzyme. In 1988, Colin Pitchfork was the first person convicted of murder with DNA evidence, which led to growth of forensic science. More recently, Andrew Z. Fire and Craig C. Mello received the 2006 Nobel Prize for discovering the role of RNA interference (RNAi), in the silencing of gene expression
Today, there are three main types of biochemistry. Plant biochemistry involves the study of the biochemistry of autotrophic organisms such as photosynthesis and other plant specific biochemical processes. General biochemistry encompasses both plant and animal biochemistry. Human/medical/medicinal biochemistry focuses on the biochemistry of humans and medical illnesses
DEVELOPMENT OF BIOCHEMISTRY
Biochemistry products is close to the development of biotechnology. Here is the development.
1. Pra Pasteur Era (before1865)
Remidical fermentation technique by microorganism, such as alcoholic drinking.
2. Pasteur Era (1865-1940)
Development of fermentation industry on making etanol, butanol, and organic acid, and waste water treatment.
3. Antibiotika Era (1940-1960)
The making of penicillin that used at Pembuatan penisilin yang mulai digunakan pada saat soldiers US landing in Normand while World War II, virus vaccine, animal cells culture technology.
4. Pasca Antibiotika Era (1960-1975)
Amino acids elusidate DNA structure, protein sel tunggal, enzim for deterjen, biogas, rekombinan DNA technology.
5. Biotechnology Modern Era (1975- until now)
The making of genetics, zat antibodi monokronal, insulin hormone, tuna fish growth hormone.
Development of biochemistry is close to development of biotechnology.
|Year||Development and Discovery|
|1670||An effort to dig copper ore with helped microorganism in Rio Tinto, Spanyol|
|1686||Invention microscope by Antony van Leeuwenhoek|
|1870||Louis pasteur discover microbes in food and drink|
|1890||Alcohol can used to fuel of motor system|
|1897||Invention enzyme from yeast extract that can change sugar into alcohol by Eduard Buchner|
|1914-1918||Fermentation of organic solvent to make gun cotton(glycerol)|
|1915-1920||Bread shop use yeast to make bread. Enzime is used to made milk, cheese, wine, candy, vitamins and mineral supplement.|
|1917||Karl Ereky introduce biotechnology go public|
|1943||Peniciline produced in industry scale|
|1944||Avery, MacLeod, McCarty demonstrate that DNA is a genetics material|
|1955||Watson & Crick determine DNA structure|
|1956||Joe Han Tijo and Albert Levan point out dual chromosome human cells is 23 pair|
|1961||Journal Biotechnology and Bioengineering is decided|
|1961-1966||All of genetics codes Seluruh sandi genetic is revealed|
|1970||Enzim restriksiendonuklease, first time, is isolated|
|1972||Khorana and his friends did syntheses all of tRNA gens with chemical ways|
|1973||Boyer dan Cohen explain DNA technology rekombinan|
|1975||Kohler dan Milstein explain production of antibodi monoclonal|
|1976||Development of techniques to determine DNA sequenzes.|
|1978||Genetech produce human insulin in E.coli|
|1980||US Supreme Court: Microorganism from manipulated have patent right.|
|1981||For the first time, automated DNA synthesizers sold out to public|
|1981||For the first time, kit diagnostic based on antibodi agreeable to use in US|
|1982||For the first time, animal vaccine product of technology hewan hasil teknologi DNA rekombinan agreeable to use in Europe|
|1983||Plasmid Ti product of genetics engineering is used to plant transformation|
|1988||US Patent was given to small rats, product of genetics engineering so suspectible by cancer.|
|1988||Methode Polymerase Chain Reaction go public|
|1990||USAgive agreeable experiment therapy gen sel somatic in human|
|1997||Animal cloning (Dolly sheep) from mature cells|
|2000||Pro and contra transgenic plants in Indonesia. Transgenic cotton was planted in South Sulawesi|
|2001||Monkey transgenic construction (ANDi) that contain GFP gen from jellyfish|